Faecal Occult Blood Test

Case of the Month (Tim Cushing January 2015)

Feline Lungworm

This was a young cat with a history of coughing, eventually leading to respiratory distress and death.

 




Fig 1. Low magnification of the lung, effaced by largely granulomatous inflammation.  Bottom right – embryonated parasite eggs; bottom left – few thin nematode larvae; top right – bronchus filled with neutrophils. 40x magnification


Fig 2. Higher magnification view of parasite larvae and eggs within granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation. 100x magnification

 


 




Final Diagnosis

Severe suppurative to pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic bronchopneumonia with large numbers of intralesional parasitic larvae and ova.


 Discussion

This is consistent with feline lungworm (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus) disease. Although the prepatent period of this parasite is approximately 4 - 6 weeks, pulmonary lesions may be evident much earlier and in one study, ova and larvae were identified together within the lung from approximately 35 days post infection*. Note that while a few eosinophils are observed, the inflammation is largely granulomatous and neutrophilic.  The pulmonary stages of Aelurostrongylus are readily visible histologically, but can also be retrieved in BAL/TTW samples. 

Infection of the cat requires ingestion of intermediate hosts (many molluscs) containing L3 larvae. Given the suppurative bronchopneumonia present in these samples, I would not exclude secondary bacterial component, however, early lesions of verminous pneumonia may also be associated by large numbers of bronchiolar neutrophils.

*P.H.G. Stockdale, Pathol Vet 7: 102, 1970.

Previous Monthly Cases

Hypertensive Retinopathy January 2010
FIP in a cat - uncommon presentation February 2010
Phaeohyphomycosis    March 2010 
Scleral Rupture April 2010
Canine and feline epulides May 2010
Erythema multiforme in a labrador retreiver June 2010
Keloidal fibrosarcoma in a labrador retreiver July 2010
Cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma  August 2010 
Benign cutaneous histiocytoma  September 2010 
Iridociliary adenoma October 2010
Proliferative thrombovascular necrosis of the pinnae November 2010
Signet-ring cell carcinoma in the stomach of a dog December 2010
Cutaneous infiltrative lipoma in a labrador January 2011

Tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma February 2011
Canine orbital meningioma March 2011
"Lung-digit" syndrome in a cat April 2011
Hepatic amyloidosis in a cat May 2011
Haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma June 2011
Alternaria spp. infection in an immunocompromised dog July 2011
Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in a cat  August 2011
Kerion dermatophytosis in a Cocker spaniel September 2011
Subcuticular coenurus in a rabbit  October 2011
Optic nerve glioma in a dog November 2011
Malignant transformation of a viral papilloma in a dog  December 2011
Uveodermatological syndrome in an Akita
January 2012
Cutaneous angiostomatosis in a dog  February 2012
Transitional cell carcinoma in a dog  March 2012
Corneal inclusion cysts in a dog   April 2012
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a dog  May 2012
Subungual melanoma in a dog  June 2012
Retrobulbar grass seed in a dog   July 2012
Lungworm infection associated with hypercalcaemia in a dog  August 2012
Conjunctival melanoma in a dog  September 2012
Pneumocystis infection in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel  October 2012
Fungal keratitis and secondary endophthalmitis in a horse November 2012
Myeloid leukaemia with lymph node invasion in a dog    December 2012
Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a cat   January 2013
Glomerulonephritis in a dog  February 2013
Splenic mast cell tumour in a cat  March 2013
Laryngeal rhabdomyoma in a dog  April 2013
Mycobacterial infection in an eye May 2013
Key Gaskell syndrome in a cat June 2013
Intraosseous epidermoid cyst in the toe of a dog July 2013
Septic Lens Implantation Syndrome August 2013
Fungal Keratitis in a dog September 2013
Fatal Cowpox Infection in a Cat
October 2013
Lingual granular cell tumour in a dog November 2013
Leydig cell tumour in a dog December 2013
Urticarial allergic reaction in a dog January 2014
Conjunctival foreign body in a dog  February 2014
An enlarged sublumbar lymph node in a hypercalcaemic dog  March 2014
Perineural invasion of a carcinoma in a dog  April 2014
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a dog  May 2014
Sebaceous adenitis in a dog  June 2014
Ovarian teratoma  July 2014
Cutaneous cowpox virus infection in a cat  August 2014
Acute renal falure in a cat  September 2014
Azothioprine toxicity in a dog  October 2014
Neoplastic pleural effusion in a dog November 2014
Squamous cell carcinoma in the orbit of a dog December 2014



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Faecal Occult Blood Test